Monday, July 09, 2007

Types of Photographs

Today, most traditional photographs are produced with a two-step chemical process. In the two-step process the film holds a negative image (colours and lights/darks are inverted), which is then transferred onto photographic paper as a positive image. Another widely used film is the positive film used for producing transparencies, usually mounted in cardboard or plastic frames called slides. Slides are widely used by professionals mostly due to their sharpness and accuracy of colour rendition. Most photographs published in magazines are taken on colour transparency film.

Originally all photographs were monochromatic, or hand-painted in color. Although methods for developing color photos were available as early as 1861, they did not become widely available until the 1940s or 50s, and even so, until the 1960s most photographs were taken in black and white. Since then, color photography has dominated popular photography, although the black and white format remains popular for amateur photographers and artists. Black and white film is considerably easier to develop than colour.

Panoramic format Images can be taken with special cameras like the Hasselblad Xpan on standard film. Since the 1990s, panoramic photos have been available on the Advanced Photo System film. APS was developed by several of the major film manufacturers to provide a "smart" film with different formats and computerized options available, though APS panoramas were created using a mask in panorama-capable cameras, far less desirable than a true panoramic camera which achieves its effect through wider film format. APS has become less popular and will be discontinued in the near future.

Digital photos are stored on computers in various file formats, of which JPEG is the most popular. Many other graphic formats are used, including TIFF and RAW.

An archival digital print is digital photographic process that results in an image display life of 100+ years, if displayed indoors under glass. Special acid free archival inks or pigments are printed directly on acid free archival art papers. Ultrachrome, Ilfochrome, and Archival Pigments are examples of commercial inks available for the production of archival digital prints. Velvet Fine Art Paper, 100% Rag, Canvas, Enahnced Matte, Watercolor Paper, Premium Ultra Glossy and other papers are examples of printable media used in arvhival digital printing.

The process requires special printers designed for the process, such as inkjet printers, IRIS printers, carbon pigment printing, or other similar processes. Recently, Epson, Canon, Hewlett-Packard, and other manufacturers have developed recreational use printers (as compared to industrial use printers) that are quite reasonable in price, enabling individual artists, students, and afficcionados to print at home.


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